[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 2]
[Revised as of April 1, 2006]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN
PART 136_BAKERY PRODUCTS--Table of Contents
Subpart B_Requirements for Specific Standardized Bakery Products
Sec. 136.110 Bread, rolls, and buns.
(a) Bread, white bread, and rolls, white rolls, or buns, and white
buns are the foods produced by baking mixed yeast-leavened dough
prepared from one or more of the farinaceous ingredients listed in
paragraph (c)(1) of this section and one or more of the moistening
ingredients listed in paragraphs (c) (2), (6), (7), and (8) of this
section and one or more of the leavening agents provided for by
paragraph (c)(3) of this section. The food may contain additional
ingredients as provided for by paragraph (c) of this section. Each of
the finished foods contains not less than 62 percent total solids as
determined by the method prescribed in paragraph (d) of this section.
(b) All ingredients from which the food is fabricated shall be safe
(c) The following optional ingredients are provided for:
(1) Flour, bromated flour, phosphated flour, or a combination of two
or more of these. The potassium bromate in any bromated flour used and
the monocalcium phosphate in any phosphated flour used are deemed to be
additional optional ingredients in the bread, rolls, or buns. All
ingredients in any flour, bromated flour, or phosphated flour used are
deemed to be optional ingredients of the bread, rolls, or buns prepared
(3) Yeast--any type which produces the necessary leavening effect.
(5) Shortening, in which or in conjunction with which may be used
one or any combination of two or more of the following:
(i) Lecithin, hydroxylated lecithin complying with the provisions of
part 172 of this chapter, either of which may include related
phosphatides derived from the corn oil or soybean oil from which such
ingredients were obtained.
(ii) Mono- and diglycerides of fat-forming fatty acids, diacetyl
tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fat-forming fatty
acids, propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fat-forming fatty acids,
and other ingredients that perform a similar function.
(6) Milk and/or other dairy products in such quantity and
composition as not to meet the requirements for milk and/or other dairy
products prescribed for milk bread by Sec. 136.130. Whenever nonfat
milk solids in any form are used, carrageenan or salts of carrageenan
complying with the provisions of part 172 of this chapter may be used in
a quantity not in excess of 0.8 percent by weight of such nonfat milk
(7) Egg products.
(8) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners.
(9) Enzyme active preparations.
(10) Lactic-acid-producing bacteria.
(11) Nonwheat flours, nonwheat meals, nonwheat grits, wheat and
nonwheat starches, any of which may be wholly or in part dextrinized,
dextrinized wheat flour, or any combination of 2 or more of these, if
the total quantity is not more than 3 parts for each 100 parts by weight
of flour used.
(12) Ground dehulled soybeans which may be heat-treated, and from
which oil may be removed, but which retain enzymatic activity, if the
quantity is not more than 0.5 part for each 100 parts by weight of flour
(13) Yeast nutrients and calcium salts, if the total quantity of
such ingredients, with the exception of monocalcium phosphate and
calcium propionate, is not more than 0.25 part for each 100 parts by
weight of flour used. The quantity of monocalcium phosphate, including
any quantity in the flour used, is not more than 0.75 part for each 100
parts by weight of flour used. Any calcium propionate used as a
preservative in bread, rolls, or buns is not subject to the limitation
prescribed in this paragraph.
(14)(i) Potassium bromate, calcium bromate, potassium iodate,
calcium iodate, calcium peroxide, or any combination of 2 or more of
these if the total quantity, including the potassium bromate in any
bromated flour used, is not more than 0.0075 part for each 100 parts by
weight of flour used.
(ii) Azodicarbonamide, if the total quantity, including any quantity
in the flour used, is not more than 0.0045 part for each 100 parts by
weight of flour used.
(15) Dough strengtheners and other dough conditioners not listed or
referred to in this paragraph, if the total quantities of such
ingredients or combination is not more than 0.5 part for each 100 parts
by weight of flour used.
(16) Spices, spice oil, and spice extract.
(17) Coloring may not be added as such or as part of another
ingredient except as permitted by paragraph (c)(16) of this section and
except that coloring which may be present in butter or margarine if the
intensity of the butter or margarine color does not exceed ``medium
high'' (MH) when viewed under diffused light (7400 Kelvin) against the
Munsell Butter Color Comparator. The MH designation corresponds to the
Munsell renotation of 3.8Y7.9/7.6.
(18) Other ingredients that do not change the basic identity or
adversely affect the physical and nutritional characteristics of the
(d) Total solids are determined by the method prescribed in
``Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical
Chemists,'' 13th Ed. (1980), section 14.091(a), which is incorporated by
reference, except that if the baked unit weighs 454 grams (1 pound) or
more, one entire unit is used for the determination; if the baked unit
weighs less than 454 grams, enough units to weigh 454 grams or more are
used. Copies of the material incorporated by reference may be obtained
from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 481 North Frederick Ave., suite 500,
Gaithersburg, MD 20877, or may be examined at the National Archives and
Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of
this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://
(e)(1) The name of the food is ``bread'', ``white bread'',
``rolls'', ``white rolls'', ``buns'', ``white buns'', as applicable.
When the food contains not less than 2.56 percent by weight of whole egg
solids, the name of the food may be ``egg bread'', ``egg rolls'', or
``egg buns'', as applicable, accompanied by the statement ``Contains --
-- medium-sized egg(s) per pound'' in the manner prescribed by Sec.
102.5(c)(3) of this chapter, the blank to be filled in with the number
which represents the whole egg content of the food expressed to the
nearest one-fifth egg but not greater than the amount actually present.
For the purpose of this regulation, whole egg solids are the edible
contents of eggs calculated on a moisture-free basis and exclusive of
any nonegg solids which may be present in standardized and other
commercial egg products. One medium-sized egg is equivalent to 0.41
ounce of whole egg solids.
(2) When the label bears any representation, other than in the
ingredient listing, of the presence of egg in the food, e.g., the word
egg or any phonetic equivalent spelling of the word egg, or a picture of
an egg, the food shall contain not less than 2.56 percent of whole egg
(f) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used shall be
declared on the label as required by the applicable sections of parts
101 and 130 of this chapter.
[42 FR 14400, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 47177, Oct. 13, 1978;
47 FR 11826, Mar. 19, 1982; 49 FR 10096, Mar. 19, 1984; 49 FR 13692,
Apr. 6, 1984; 54 FR 24894, June 12, 1989; 58 FR 2877, Jan. 6, 1993; 63
FR 14035, Mar. 24, 1998]
Additives that reference this regulation: